Science is advancing at breakneck speed in understanding the world around us and solving the problems that torment us. Questions that have arisen over the centuries have been revealed thanks to the invaluable work of scientistsHowever, some mysteries persist over time, and to this day it has not been possible to give an exact answer.
Several questions could include this long list, but today we will focus on them 5 great mysteries summarized by BBC NewsFind out what it consists of and how much we know about it.
1- What does the universe consist of?
The universe itself is a source of questions: What existed before existence; Whether infinite or simply enormous; Whether it is unique or one of many…But it is particularly strange that scientists, until now, They only understand the nature of 5% of its structure.
A big mystery remains, a fundamental one: What is the remaining 95%?
It is known that about 27% of it is dark matter. It was first discovered in 1933 and acts as an invisible glue that binds galaxies and galaxy clusters together.
It is known to be close because it has mass And therefore, gravitational forceWhich can be measured when it attracts the known 5%. And if this invisible cloak is mysterious, it is even more mysterious as it makes up more or less 68% of the universe: Dark energy, whose existence has been known since 1998.
Experts explain that this is it Something similar to etherWhich fills space and drives the expansion of the universe at ever greater speeds.
But less is more… There are many hypotheses but after decades of research, the mystery still remains.
2- How did life arise?
The hypothesis was proposed in the 1920s by Alexander Oparin in the Soviet Union and British geneticist J. B. S. Haldane Simultaneously and independently, it is one of several competing theories of response.
The idea is that when the Earth was young, The oceans were full of simple chemicals important for lifeThis is done by a mixture of gases in the atmosphere, lightning energy, and amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.
According to many scholars. It is the best candidate to explain how life arose on Earth. But it is not universally accepted and it is not the only one.
In fact, there is no consensus about life or where it began. There are scientists who believe it started in the sea, others in geothermal pools, in ice or even far from Earth (and got here with asteroids or space dust).
And when? It is not known exactly: The moment of life's emergence is also in question.
The only thing we know for sure is that it occurred after the Earth's formation, 4.5 billion years ago, and 3.4 billion years ago, the time of the oldest confirmed fossils.
Even more complicated was what the mechanism was. Aggregation of amino acids into proteins is possible, but not as common The hypothesis that life began with ribonucleic acid (RNA).a close cousin of DNA that can carry genes and copy itself, as well as fold and act as an enzyme.
Another idea is that the first living organisms were Simple clumps or bubbles“Primary cells” that They serve as containers for the ingredients of life.
Therefore, there is still no agreement on the answer to one of the deepest questions in science.
3- What makes us human?
second BBC News, is a question that is becoming more difficult to answer.
Before that there were aspects that seemed exceptionally human: Language and recognition of ourselves When we see ourselves reflected, Ability to create and use tools or solve complex problems.
But animals such as octopuses and crows, to name a few, have gradually shed this superiority complex.
What about DNA?
It turns out The human genome is 99% identical to the chimpanzee genomethat animal that terrified many people when Charles Darwin seemed to hint that it was a family.
It is true that our brains are larger than those of most animals: we have, for example, The number of neurons is three times greater than in gorillas. But given that animals like the elephant are superior to us, The answer doesn't seem to exist.
Is this due to the thicker frontal cortex? Or the opposite thumb? Perhaps our culture, our ability to cook, or our mastery of fire? Perhaps cooperation, compassion, and skill-sharing?
Doubts still remain about what makes us human…
4- What is awareness?
Consciousness may be what makes us humanbut it's hard to know without understanding what it is.
The organ of consciousness, according to experts, is the human brain, which is the most complex thing in the known universe: 100 billion constantly active neurons that control biological functions and help us think.
Not only does it allow us to respond to sounds, smells, and all kinds of environmental cues, but it also retains information. What's more: by integrating and processing a lot of information, we can focus and block sensory stimuli that bombard us instead of reacting.
In addition to, It allows us to distinguish between what is real and what is not realAnd imagining multiple future scenarios helps us adapt and survive.
But it's not a computer, it's much more than that. Not only do we think, but we also know that we think. Consciousness is the most surprising thing about the brain and it's a question we may never be able to solve.
5- Why do we dream?
Scientists and sleep experts know when we dream: Usually during the rapid eye movement (REM) portion of the sleep cycle. What they don't know is why we dream.
Sigmund Freud Dreams are believed to be an expression of unsatisfied desires (often nationality); Others believe that dreams are nothing more than random images of the brain at rest.
Some studies seem to suggest that dreams may play a role in memory, learning, and emotions. Although it can also be a way to express or release daily stress.Or even an unconscious way of uncovering difficult experiences.
Our dreams can also provide a kind of survival mechanism, allowing us to simulate potential threats or rehearse social situations in advance.
But it may not perform a specific function. Suddenly they were nothing more A byproduct of our constant brain activity While we sleep.
The mystery continues here as well.
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